minerals dependency

Employment and Income Distribution Experiences of Minerals Exporters and of Countries Achieving Growth Acceleration: Executive Summary

Many but not all minerals-dependent countries have performed badly in spite of the apparent advantage such an endowment gives them. Various institutional weaknesses have been identified in cross-country analyses as contributors to this outcome. Indonesia and Chile have been able to avoid such negative impacts on growth. Indonesia, which invested much oil revenue in smallholder…


Growth, Employment and Distribution Impacts of Minerals Dependency: Four Case Studies

Cross-country evidence on the direct and indirect impacts of minerals dependency on growth suggests that the typical effect may be negative. The impact on employment and income distribution is even more likely to be adverse, since many minerals generate few jobs directly and may destroy more indirectly. Thus, countries heavily endowed with exportable natural resources…